Perihal Ateisme

“Apakah agnostik itu ateis? Tidak. Seperti seorang Kristen yang berpendapat bahwa orang Kristen mengetahui Tuhan itu ada. Ateis berpendapat bahwa kita bisa mengetahui Tuhan itu tidak ada. Sedangkan Agnostik menunda keputusan, dan meyakini bahwa tidak ada dasar untuk menerima ataupun menolaknya.”

Sebuah ungkapan dari Bertrand Russell yang menjelaskan bahwa agnostik berbeda dengan ateis. Pemahaman ini sering kali disalahpahami atau sering kali dianggap identik satu sama lain.

Agnostik adalah orang yang berpikir bahwa tidak mungkin untuk mengetahui tentang Tuhan. Akan tetapi, tetap membuka kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang ada (menunda keputusan) dengan dasar-dasar atau argumen-argumen yang kuat. Sedangkan ateis adalah orang yang meyakini bahwa Tuhan itu tidak ada.

Kata ateis sendiri berasal dari bahasa Yunani (atheos) yang terdiri dari dua kata, yaitu “a” berarti “tanpa” dan “theos” berarti “dewa” atau “Tuhan”. Artinya, ateisme adalah sebuah kepercayaan yang tanpa Tuhan atau seseorang yang meyakini bahwa Tuhan tidak ada.

Kita sebagai seseorang yang beragama tentu akan bertanya-tanya bagaimana mungkin ada orang yang tidak percaya pada Tuhan? Di mana ada-nya alam semesta ini serta keteraturan dalam prosesnya menunjukkan bahwa ada yang menciptakan dan mengatur segalanya. Karena, tidak mungkin ada sesuatu tanpa ada yang mengadakannya, yaitu Tuhan. Begitupun bagi orang ateis, mereka percaya bahwa alam semesta tercipta secara alami bukan karena adanya yang menciptakan.

Ateisme percaya bahwa terciptanya alam semesta merupakan proses alamiah dari alam. Menurut ateisme dunia tidak tercipta dalam tujuh hari semata. Melainkan berjuta-juta tahun lamanya yang diakibatkan oleh pertemuan dan penyatuan zat-zat kimia secara berulang-ulang dengan perlahan-lahan hingga terciptanya dunia dengan keteraturan alamiahnya.

Dalam hal ini tentu akan menimbulkan perdebatan yang berujung pada klaim kebenaran masing-masing. Ateisme akan berpendapat bahwa Tuhan itu tidak ada dan segala sesuatu yang ada, tidak ada kaitannya dengan Tuhan semua berjalan secara alamiah. Sedangkan orang beragama mempercayai bahwa segala sesuatu pasti berkaitan dengan Tuhan.

Kemudian pertanyaannya adalah mengapa manusia harus percaya pada Tuhan dan memutuskan untuk beragama? Dan mengapa manusia memutuskan untuk tidak beragama? Bahkan tidak percaya akan adanya Tuhan? Ada apa dengan agama?

Kendati demikian, di sini penulis ingin mengajak pembaca untuk berpikir, bagaimana jika kita terlahir atau ada dengan sendirinya di suatu tempat tanpa pengetahuan agama dan pengetahuan lainnya. Terlahir dengan “kekosongan”. Apa yang akan kita pikirkan dan lakukan terlebih dahulu? Bagaimana cara kita untuk menjawab tentang keberadaan, darimana, dan siapa kita sebenarnya? Apakah akal pikiran kita mampu untuk menjawab semua itu? Atau justru kita tetap membutuhkan agama untuk memuaskan semua pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut?

Kemudian menariknya adalah kita sebagai warga negara Indonesia yang mayoritas masyarakatnya adalah penganut agama, akan tetapi di tengah-tengah itu semua ada sebagian orang yang justru tidak hanya tidak beragama melainkan tidak percaya akan adanya Tuhan. Dalam jurnal A Study of The Atheist View On Relegion oleh Hanung Sito Rohmawati menyebutkan bahwa ateisme di Indonesia mencapai 1,5% atau sekitar 3,5 juta penganut ateisme. Dan disebutkan juga dalam survei Atheis Aliance Internasional terdapat 1.717 orang yang mengaku ateis di Indonesia. 967 diantaranya adalah penganut agama islam sebelumnya dan 1.136 merupakan mahasiswa atau orang yang berpendidikan sarjana serta 202 orang berpendidikan pascasarjana.

Hal ini tentu sangat menarik untuk dibahas, serta menjadi sebuah pertanyaan besar bagi kita terutama di Indonesia. Sebab di samping kita sebagai negara mayoritas beragama islam, kita juga memiliki budaya yang kuat akan mistis. Karena dalam setiap suku yang ada di indonesia memiliki kepercayaan nenek moyangnya masing-masing yang ditandai dengan kepercayaan mistisnya.

Fenomena ini tidak hanya terjadi dalam negara yang mayoritas masyarakatnya muslim, bahkan yang lebih mengherankan lagi terjadi di “negara Islam’, tempat lahirnya agama islam yang mayoritas muslim serta menganut islam sebagai landasan hukum negara. Dalam jurnal State Policies and the Increasing Number of Atheism In the Middle East: A Case Study Of Saudi and Turkey disebutkan bahwa Arab Saudi memiliki 0,7% sebagai penganut ateis pada tahun 2015. Dan disebutkan juga pada tahun 2021 Arab Saudi memiliki 24% masyarakat yang tidak berafiliasi pada agama apapun. Sedangkan di Turki terdapat 1,2% yang mengaku sebagai ateis. Dan terdapat 15% penduduk yang tidak menganut agama apapun.

Hal ini tentunya menjadi sebuah pertanyaan penting bagi kita terutama bagi kalangan yang beragama. Bagaimana mungkin ateis bisa tumbuh serta berkembang di negara yang mayoritas menganut agama islam? Apa yang membuat seseorang bisa menjadi ateis? Mungkinkah ini akibat dari sains dan kemajuan teknologi? Atau mungkin agama sudah tidak relevan dengan zaman sekarang? Atau justru oknum-oknum yang menyalahkan atau memanfaatkan agama tertentu yang menyebabkan ini?

Jika kita menginginkan jawaban dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut, tentunya kita akan mendapati banyak hal yang memungkinkan itu semua. Seperti, mungkin saja seseorang menjadi ateis dikarenakan sebuah kebenciannya terhadap agama. Dan mungkin saja seseorang menjadi ateis akibat dari pahitnya kehidupan yang ia jalani sehingga kemudian menyalahkan Tuhan. Pun mungkin saja seseorang menjadi ateis akibat sains atau ilmu pengetahuan yang selama ini ia pelajari.

Kendati demikian apakah menjadi seorang ateis adalah sebuah kesalahan? Bukankah manusia bebas untuk menentukan pilihannya sendiri dengan akal yang ia punya? Bukankah setiap manusia berhak untuk percaya terhadap keyakinannya sendiri? Lalu apakah kita bisa menyalahkan seseorang dikarenakan sebuah kepercayaan yang berbeda dengan kita?

Ilustrasi: Fine Art America

About Wendi Tri Putra Nasution

Pelajar Filsafat dan Koodinator Lembaga Filsafat dan Teori Sosial Kritis (LEFTIST)

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