Idealisme Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte atau adalah anak sulung dari seorang penyamak kulit. Ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1762 M dan meninggal pada tahun 1814 M (K.Bertens, 2011:65). Fichte muda menerima pendidikan dasarnya dari sang ayah. Dalam proses pendidikannya, Fichte tumbuh dan berkembang sebagai anak yang luar biasa sehingga ia mendapat kesempatan untuk mengenyam pendidikan yang lebih baik dari anak-anak seusianya. Pada usia sembilan tahun, Fichte menarik perhatian seorang pejabat setempat sehingga pejabat tersebut bersedia membiayai pendidikannya.

Pada tahun 1780, Fichte belajar teologi di Universitas Jena dan Leipzig. Namun, pada tahun 1784, karena tidak memiliki uang Fichte harus mengakhiri studinya tanpa mendapat gelar akademik. Untuk selanjutnya, Fichte bekerja sebagai tutor pribadi di Zurich selama dua tahun.

Tahun 1790 M adalah tahun yang paling membahagiakan bagi Fichte karena ia bertemu dengan Johanna Rahn yang menjadi kekasihnya. Kemudian, pada tahun yang sama mereka bertunangan. Setelah pertunangannya kemudian Fichte melanjutkan studinya di Pforta, kemudian ke Jena di Leipzig. Kematian orangtuanya membuat Fichte kembali meninggalkan studinya dan mencari nafkah sebagai guru pribadi.

Ketika menjadi seorang guru, Fichte bertemu dan berkenalan dengan filsafat Kant yang sangat mempengaruhinya. Karena Fichte mengagumi Kant, ia rela pindah ke Koningsberg. Pada tahun 1794, ia diangkat sebagai filsuf di Universitas Jena dan di sanalah ia mulai mengungkapkan ide-ide trasedentalnya. Fichte mengulangi kuliahnya selama tiga tahun pada tahun 1796 sampai 1799. Selama bertahun-tahun, Fichte mempersiapkan dan menerbitkan esai-esainya tentang subdivisi dari teorinya, khusunya pada politik, etika keyakinan, dan pemerintahan.

Sebagai seorang filsuf, Fichte melahirkan beberapa karya, diantaranya; Ucber die Bestimmung des Menschen, Grunlage der Gastinen Winssenchafslehre, dan Das System der Sitterile, her nach den Prinzipen der wissenschaftslehre. Tulisan-tulisan Fichte mulai popular pada tahun 1799 M, ketika ia bekerja sebagai tutor pribadi untuk menyokong kehidupannya.

Pada saat Napoleon menduduki Jerman, Fichte mencari pengasingan di Konigsberg, menyelenggarakan ceramah pada Wissenschaftslehre, dan menulis sebuah karya maha penting terkait politik yang berbeda tajam dengan liberalisme. Setelah mengalami problem kehidupan yang berliku, Fichte diangkat sebagai profesor di University of Berlin pada tahun 1810, yang waktu itu baru didirikan. Fichte menjadi kepala departemen filsafat dan rektor Universitas Prusia di Berlin dan ia meninggal pada usia 51 tahun pada tanggal 29 januari 1814.

Fichte sering menunjukan filsafatnya sebagai Wissenchhaftslehre, yaitu refleksi tentang pengetahuan. Ficthe sepakat dengan Kant bahwa semua ilmu membahas salah satu objek tertentu, sedangkan filsafat bertugas memandang pengetahuan itu sendiri (Harun Hadiwijono, 2005:88). Oleh karenanya, filsafat harus menjadi dasar segala ilmu pengetahuan. Inilah yang dinamakan Wissenchhaftslehre yang juga diartikan sebagai “ajaran tentang ilmu pengetahuan“.

Bagi Fichte, Wissenchhaftslehre bukanlah perenungan teoritis mengenai struktur dan hubungan antara satu ilmu pengetahuan dengan ilmu yang lain, melainkan perenungan mengenai ilmu pengetahuan itu sendiri (Muhammad Alfan, 2013:240).

Selanjutnya, dalam mengembangkan pemikirannya, Fichte telah menganalisis beberapa pemikiran dan ia sampai pada kesimpulan bahwa filsafat mempunyai dua pendirian, yaitu dogmatisme dan kritisisme. Berdasarkan kesimpulan tersebut, Fichte memandang Kant sebagai seorang dreivertelskopf karena ia masih berpendapat bahwa materi itu benar-benar ada, tidak bergantung pada kesadaran manusia.

Kritik Fichte dapat dipahami karena ia menyukai idelalisme radikal yang diturunkan oleh “Aku“ yang absolut atau “Kesadaran yang meng-Ia-kan dirinya sendiri. Dengan kesadarannya, Aku absolut menciptakan non-aku (alam semesta) sebagai antitesis. Non-aku ini pada mulanya tidak sadar, oleh karena itu, ia harus kembali ke kesadaran dalam aku-absolut. Proses kembalinya non-aku ke Aku absolut membawa seluruh realitas dan aktivitas moral yang kreatif (K. Bertens, 2000:97).

Menurut Fichte, filsafat tidak berpangkal pada subtansi, melainkan dari suatu perbuatan (Tathandlung), yaitu Aku absolut yang meng-Ia-kan dan meng-Ada-kan dirinya sendiri. Dengan kata lain, realitas seluruhnya harus dianggap menciptakan dirinya sendiri. Dengan cara inilah Fichte bermaksud mendamaikan pertentangan antara rasio teoritis dan rasio praktis yang terdapat dalam filsafat Kant. Oleh karena itu, jika filsafat Fichte dapat disebut sebagai idealisme praktis hal itu tidak lain karena, menurutnya, Aku absolutlah yang mengadakan tempat untuk menjalankan segala aktivitas.

Berdasarkan gagasannya tersebut, Fichte telah menerangkan mungkinnya pengalaman kita. Sebagai contoh, aku melihat sebuah pohon. Aku memang melihat sebuah pohon berada ditempat itu sebagai sesuatu yang “asing“ bagiku. Aku telah mengalami hubungan subyek-objek karena tidak mungkin hanya ada objek. Oleh karena itu, Fichte mengatakan bahwa “non-aku“ merupakan buah hasil aktivitas Aku absolut.

Selain itu, Fichte juga memiliki gagasan yang radikal tentang agama. Ia mengungkapkan bahwa agama sama dengan pengakuan adanya moral word order. Cara Fichte mendukung gagasannya memberi kesan seakan-akan ia tidak menerima Tuhan yang bersifat personal. Namun, di saat yang sama, Fichte selalu membantah bahwa ia seorang ateis serta menolak untuk merubah ajarannya. Akibat pendiriannya, Fichte dipecat dari jabatan profesornya di Kota Jena pada tahun 1799 M.

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